Sacred Cow as an Economic Power for India
Department of Environmental Science
GB Pant University of Agriculture & Technology
Pantnagar – 263145, Uttarakhand, India
Sacred cow, these days a buzzword in India, is a universal notion, a metaphor oft-quoted the world over. Role of the cow has been phenomenal ever since the dawn of agriculture some 10000 years ago. The cow, since then, has been providing the power necessary for feeding India, rather most of the world.
A poster hanging in the office of Navdanya in Dehradun portraying cattle reads that if all the cattle of India stand in a queue, the queue would reach the moon. With as many as 200 million cattle heads, India stands at number one in the world sharing as high as 33.39% of the world’s cattle population. Brazil with 22.64% and China with 10.03% world’s cattle population are at second and third rank, respectively. A happy feeling every proud Indian cultivates in mind is that we are the largest producer of milk in the world. Total milk production in the year 2016-17 is estimated at 155 million tonnes, which is likely to rise to 210 million tonnes in 2021-22. It is thanks to India’s robust cattle population that we have been recoding an annual increment of 4% in milk production for the last 10 years. The white revolution, thus, has been sustainable unlike the green revolution which has been recording unsustainability indicated by stagnancy and diminishing returns. Per capita milk production in India has also risen from merely 178 g in 1991-92 to as high as 337 g in 2015-16. Thus, contribution of the livestock sector, especially of cattle, to India’s food security is enormous, giving us a feeling of pride.
Contribution of cattle is counted only in terms of their milk production. As draught animals, nevertheless, they play still a more phenomenal role. I did my first doctoral degree with research focus on draught animal power with subsequent postdoctoral work also focused on the draught animal power in Indian agriculture. In the first agricultural university of India (the Pantnagar University), I was the first ever Ph.D. student to have appreciated role of cattle as draught animals. Again, I was the first research fellow at the Kathmandu based International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) who ventured to carry out research work on draught animals. Ventured, because working on or even thinking about the draught animals is regarded to be a symbol of backwardness. “Professors do not want to work on draught animals, or they will not get promotion,” said Prof. N.S. Ramaswamy, the former Director of Indian Institute of Management based in Bangalore, who has done seminal work on draught animals and is one of the pioneers of research work in this field.
Cattle are used in almost all agricultural operations making them the largest (but rather informal) power sector in India. When I was working on draught animal power in Indian agriculture in 1980s and earlier 1990s, the figures of cattle contribution to agriculture were dazzling: 66% from draught animals, 23% from human muscles, and only 11% from machines like tractors and combine harvesters. These figures might be varying today. In fact, no organization in the country keeps draught animal power related data in records. In the Green Revolution belt of the country we generally encounter tractors tilling land and carrying agriculture produce from fields to home and market place. But, most of India still depends overwhelmingly on cattle for field operations ranging from ploughing to levelling, puddling, inter-culture, threshing, etc. Most of the agriculture produce in rural India is hauled by animals, especially bullocks. Bullock carts still serve as life-line of transport in most of the rural India.
Not only is India standing robust in cattle population and milk production, but also in the diversity of cattle breeds. There are fewer less than 30 well-described breeds in India. Number of non-descript breeds is still larger. Each of the breeds has specific traits such as of milk yield, draught power, feed conversion efficiency, sturdiness, adaptability, negotiation with terrain, etc. Some Indian breeds, such as Sahiwal, Gir, Red Sindhi, Tharparkar and Rathi are amongst the milk breeds. Hariana, Amritmahal, Kankrej, Ongole, Red Kandhari, Malvi, Nimari, Negori, Kangayam, Hallikar, Dangi, Khillari, Baraguru, Kenkatha, Siri, Bachaur, Ponwar, Kherigarh, Mewati, etc. are draught breeds. Hariana cattle breed of the Haryana state is regarded one of the best draught breeds in the world. The Vechur breed found in Kerala is the smallest cattle breed in the world. You can milk it making it stand on a table, and yet it produces very hardy and valuable draught bullocks.
Agriculture in India in some of the areas, especially in the Himalayan mountains and in other mountain ranges, is unimaginable without cattle. Almost all mountain communities all over the world are livestock-dependent. Draught power input in cultivated lands and food productivity are directly correlated. Thus, we can understand the value of draught animals in food production and consequent food security of the nation. Draught animals the cow is the mother of also play phenomenal role in maintaining agro-ecological integrity of our farming systems, especially in mountain areas, by managing agro-biodiversity, agricultural diversification, nutrient cycling, and soil fertility. Further, dependence on draught animals precludes use of petroleum thereby preventing carbon emissions that would have added to climate woes. Dependence on bullock power for agriculture, on the whole, is of carbon-negative proportions. Dependence on tractors and other farm machinery, due to exclusive dependence of fossil fuels, on the other hand, adds to climate woes.
India’s food independence and food security are largely attributable to overwhelming majority of small and marginal farmers (accounting for more than 83% of total land holdings) dependent on draught animals, not to a handful of large farmers dependent on farm machinery. Contributing to greenhouse gases to the extent of 32% (14% each from agriculture, and deforestation to give way to agriculture, and 4% from crop residues), the world’s agriculture, in fact, is also a climate culprit. But it is the green revolution type of agriculture – largely operated by big farmers relying heavily on fossil fuel-based mechanisation and excessive nitrogenous fertilizers – which is to blame. Small and marginal farmers largely manage crop-livestock mixed farming in linkages with forests and apply no or little chemical fertilizers. Smallholders’ agriculture is, thus, less likely to add stress to climate.
Now something about beef. There is much lamenting by the so-called secularists over the issue of banning cow slaughter. They are not concerned about the facts and figures, about national emotions, and not even about the crux of the problem. They would just link the issue of cow slaughter ban with the ‘right of Muslims’. Meat industry is one of the most brutal climate villains leaving trail of huge amounts of carbon in the atmosphere. Since the inception of Industrial Age when the world began to burn fossil fuels, we have warmed up the globe to the extent of 0.8 degrees Celsius. A World Bank Report says that the world is locked into 1.5 degrees Celsius warming due to the past and the predicted carbon emissions. The Paris climate negotiations of December 2016 fix the target of 2 degrees Celsius. The figure of 2 is small but it has to have phenomenally negative impact on life and on living planet. Food habits, in the same way, appear to be personal matters (not to be questionable!), but largest phenomenal human impact on climate is only owing to food habits. A meat diet, especially composed of beef, has to have the worst effect on the environment. Graphical representation of the data in a CNN report suggest that the largest carbon footprint due to a variety of foods is on account of beef, which is about 60 times larger than that of the diet composed by beans, peas and soybean (vegetarian diet).
The ongoing evitable cow controversy has merely political ramifications. Analysing from the socioeconomic and environmental angles we arrive at the conclusion the cow must be regarded as a pivotal source of India’s socio-economic and ecological development. A cow-powered India will truly be a happy and sustainable India.